Organic Farming: Types, Principles, Methods and Importance

Organic farming is the method of crop and livestock production that involves much more than choosing not to use pesticides, fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, antibiotics and growth hormones. (food.ndtv. com)

In other words, it is referred to as, low input farming and uses natural sources of nutrients. These sources of nutrients include compost, crop residues and manure, and natural methods of crop and weed control, instead of using synthetic or inorganic agrochemicals.
OBJECTIVES OF ADOPTING ORGANIC FARMING

Organic farming may be adopted, to…;

  1. increase genetic diversity.
  2. promote more usage of natural pesticides.
  3. make sure the right soil cultivation at the right time.
  4. keep and build good soil structure and fertility.
  5. control pests, diseases and weeds.
TYPES OF ORGANIC FARMING.
1. Pure organic farming

It involves the use of organic manures and biopesticides with complete avoidance of inorganic chemicals and pesticides.

2. Integrated organic farming

It involves integrated nutrients management and integrated pest management. It is the type of farming where you grow crops from natural resources. Further, having the complete nutritive value and also manage to prevent the crop or plants from the pests.

In organic farming, we use the following techniques;
  • CROP ROTATION: It is the technique to grow various kind of crops in the same area, according to the different seasons, in a sequential way.
  • GREEN MANURE: It refers to the dying plants that are uprooted and turned into the soil to make them act as a nutrient for the soil to increase its quality
  • BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL: With this method, we use living organisms to control pests with or without the use of chemicals.
  • COMPOST: Highly rich in nutrients, it is a recycled organic matter used as a fertilizer in the agricultural farms.
METHODS OF ORGANIC FARMING
1. Soil management

After cultivation of crops, the soil loses its nutrients and its quality deplete. Organic agriculture initiates the use of natural ways to increase the fertility of the soil.  Hence, it focuses on the use of bacteria that is present in animal waste. The bacteria helps in making the soil nutrients more productive and fertile.

2. Weed management

Weed is the unwanted plant that grows in agricultural fields.  Organic agriculture focuses on lowering weed and not removing it completely. The two most widely used weed management techniques are;

● Mulching: A process where we use plastic films or plant residue on the surface of the soil to block the growth of weed.

● Mowing or Cutting: Where there is a removal of weeds top growth.

3. Crop diversity

Monoculture is the practice used in the agricultural fields where we harvest and cultivate only one type of crop in a particular place. Recently, polyculture has come in existence, where we harvest and cultivate kinds of crops. To meet the increasing crop demand and produce the required soil microorganisms.

4. Controlling other organisms

There are both useful and harmful organisms in the agricultural farm which affect the field. So, we need to control the growth of such organisms to protect the soil and the crops. We can do this by the use of herbicides and pesticides that contain fewer chemicals or are natural.

IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC FARMING
  1. The environment benefits because natural habitat sources are less threatened.
  2. It provides healthier food for people.
  3. The soil is in better condition because of the manure used.
ADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC FARMING
  1. Organic farming helps to prevent environmental degradation and can be used to regenerate degraded areas
  2. Organic manures produce an ideal condition in the soil for high yields and good quality of crops.
  3. They cut the need for purchased inputs.
  4. They improve the soil chemical properties such as supply and retention of soil nutrients and promote favourable chemical reactions.
  5. Organically grown plants are more resistant to diseases and insect and hence only a few chemical sprays or other protective treatment are required.
  6. Poison – free.
DISADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC FARMING
  1. Production costs are a high error because farmers need more workers.
  2. Food illness may happen more often.
  3. Organic food is more expensive because farmers do not get much out of their land as conventional farmers do.
  4. Organic farming cannot produce enough food that the world’s population needs to survive.

Organic Farming: Benefits and limitations

In recent years, organic farming has become a trend toward a healthier lifestyle.  The government formalized the adoption of this farming system when Congress passed Republic Act No. 10068 or the Organic Act of 2010.

Through the Act, the government has been mandated to “promote, propagate, develop further, and implement the practice of organic agriculture in the Philippines.”

Organic farming has many benefits, the Act said. This farming practice cumulatively conditions and enriches the fertility of the soil, increases farm productivity, reduces pollution and destruction of the environment, prevents depletion of natural resources, saves on imported farm inputs, and protects the health of farmers, consumers, and the general public.

The Act paved the way for people to be aware of the benefits of chemical-free agricultural products, especially among those who are healthy-conscious.

Still, there remains concrete limitations to the successful practice of organic farming in the country.

ORGANIC PRODUCTS

Benjamin R. Lao of Barangay Eman in Bansalan, Davao del Sur has completely transformed his farm into a haven for organic products.

Lao is one of the many farmers in the Davao region who follow the organic methods of farming.

Benjamin R. Lao

The farmer-scientist managed to produce coconut sugar and coconut syrup under the brand “Donnabelle,” a combination of her two daughters’ name.   Both are alternative sweeteners which are known for their lower glycemic index.

Today, Lao Integrated Farms, Inc. (LIFI) is one of the country’s biggest exporters of coconut syrup to the United States.

It likewise exports coco sugar and coco syrup to Japan and the Netherlands and ships coconut sap-based teriyaki sauce to Germany and Australia.

Aside from coconut-based products, LIFI has also come up with other saleable foodstuffs: ice cream with goat’s milk, flavored with malunggay, turmeric, durian and soursop; and tea from coco sugar, mixed with natural extracts from malunggay (moringa), turmeric, lemon grass and mangosteen.

BACK TO BASICS

In 2011, the Department of Agriculture named him as Agri-Achiever on Organic Farming during the Gawad Saka Awards.

“Organic farming means going back to the basics,” said Roy C. Alimoane, director of the Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center (MBRLC).

The center, a non-government organization based located in Barangay Kinuskusan in Bansalan, Davao del Sur, has been promoting organic farming since the 1970s.

“We want people who come to the center that once they return to their respective places,” Alimoane pointed out, “they have learned something which they could use in their own farms.”

Environment-friendly, natural, not using pesticides and other chemicals, sustainable, regenerative, and healthy—these are the words used to describe this method of farming which has recently captured the attention of many countries around the world.

“Organic agriculture is the answer,” stressed Jessica Reyes-Cantos of the Manila-based Rice Watch and Action Network.  “It won’t only retain soil productivity but it can make farming viable.  If farmers will have additional income from their land they will continue to plant rice.”

BENEFITS

Definitions vary, but according to the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements, organic agriculture is a production system that relies on ecological processes, such as waste recycling, rather than the use of synthetic inputs, such as chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

“Although organic agriculture often produces lower yields on land that has recently been farmed conventionally, it can outperform conventional practices—especially in times of drought—when the land has been farmed organically for a longer time,” said Laura Reynolds, co-author of the Worldwatch report, “Organic Agriculture Contributes to Sustainable Food Security.”

Reynolds, a researcher with Worldwatch’s Food and Agriculture Program, said that “conventional agricultural practices often degrade the environment over both the long and short term through soil erosion, excessive water extraction, and biodiversity loss.”

Organic farming, she pointed out, has the potential to contribute to sustainable food security by improving nutrition intake and sustaining livelihoods in rural areas, while simultaneously reducing vulnerability to climate change and enhancing biodiversity.

Another benefit of organic agriculture is that it uses up to 50% less fossil fuel energy than conventional farming, and common organic practices— including rotating crops, applying mulch to empty fields, and maintaining perennial shrubs and trees on farms—also stabilize soils and improve water retention, thus reducing vulnerability to harsh weather patterns.

“On average, organic farms have 30% higher biodiversity, including birds, insects, and plants, than conventional farms do,” said Catherine Ward, co-author of the Worldwatch report.

CORPORATE INTEREST

Aside from Lao, another organic farmer from Bansalan is the Espinosa family of Lower Mabuhay.  During the Regional Organic Agriculture Congress last year, they were recognized as the organic farming family.  On their farm, chemicals are abhorred.

Composting

“I have a one-hectare farmland and all that were planted are pure organic,” Janilo Espinosa, the head of the family, was quoted as saying.  “All our animals were fed using organic-based feeds.”

It was his parents who opened his eyes to organic farming.  “When I was a child, my family was into organic farming and I can still remember how we put up our garden,” he recalled.  “When I got married, I continued my family’s legacy and raised my children through organic farming.”

One good thing about organic farming is that it keeps the family healthy.  “Based on our own experience, compared to conventionally grown food, organic food is much richer in nutrients,” Espinosa said.  “It enhances the nutrients of the soil which is passed on to the plants and animals.”

Researchers from the University of Michigan found that in developed countries, yields were almost equal on organic and conventional farms.  And in developing countries, food production could double or triple using organic methods, according to Professor Ivette Perfecto in the university’s School of Natural Resources and Environment, and one the study’s principal investigators.

Perfecto said that those who believed the world will go hungry if farming went organic is “ridiculous.”  In an article which appeared in People and the Planet, she explained: “Corporate interest in agriculture and the way agriculture research has been conducted in land grant institutions, with a lot of influence by the chemical companies and pesticide companies as well as fertilizer companies—all have been playing an important role in convincing the public that you need to have these inputs to produce food.”

The outcomes of their study seemed to jibe with the earlier findings of a British team, which reported in 1999 that organic farming could produce enough food to feed large populations.  In fact, the said study concluded that it could be viable even in developing countries “if the political climate is favorable.”

Farms could be economically viable on a much larger scale, even in developing countries with large populations, said Dr. Liz Stockdale, of the Institute of Arable Crop Research in England.

“In less developed countries, countries where the conventional agricultural systems aren’t that intensive to start with, we can see that conventional systems and organic systems actually can match yields very closely,” she added.

LIMITING FACTORS

Despite the benefits derived from organic agriculture, Filipino farmers are still not agog about it.  To find out, Lucille Elna Parreno-de Guzman conducted a study in selected towns in Laguna and in La Trinidad, Benguet, where farmers are adopting organic agriculture.

The researcher found four reasons:

For one, organic agriculture is “knowledge-intensive.”  There are so many options available and it’s up to the farmers to select which suit best to their farms.  After training, “constant monitoring and assistance are still needed to ensure farmers’ continuous practice and compliance to organic agriculture standards,” Parreno-de Guzman wrote.

Another reason: too much labor in the production of organic fertilizers and concoctions.  Most farmers are used to having quick fixes by simply buying chemical inputs.  “Gathering raw materials and preparing these into organic fertilizers and other concoctions is considered laborious and time-consuming,” wrote Parreno-de Guzman.

Vermicomposting

Vermicomposting—the process of using earthworms to turn organic waste into vermicompost—is the main fertilizer production technology promoted in organic agriculture.

But doing so entails high capital as it requires construction of vermi beds and the use of a shredder to cut the materials for composting.  “These expenses are beyond the reach of small farmers,” Parreno-de Guzman wrote.

But the real reason why most farmers won’t adopt the technology is the low production during the conversion period.  The low harvest is due to the use of organic fertilizer.  “The NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) in chemical fertilizers is easily available for plant uptake unlike organic fertilizers which are slow in releasing nutrients,” wrote Parreno-de Guzman.

Aside from those four reasons, the high cost of organic certification has also been cited as a stumbling block.  Section 17 of RA 10068 stated: “Only third-party certification is allowed (for agriculture produce) to be labeled as organically produced.”

The researcher considered that statement as limiting factor in organic agriculture implementation.  Another limiting factor cited is the cost of certification, which can range from P42,000 to as much as P150,000.

Home gardening tips for preppers: Don’t plant these 18 flowers, fruits and vegetables together

Before you plant anything in your home garden, you need to plan where you’re going to place your crops to ensure that they grow well. This is crucial since certain fruit-bearing plants and vegetables shouldn’t be planted together.

Plant incompatibility basics

Sometimes, plants with different heights don’t grow well together, like tomatoes and other smaller plants.

Other plants require different levels of moisture, while some plants are more susceptible to diseases. Keeping these disease-prone crops from other plants helps restrict possible infections to a small patch of land.

There are plants that chemically damage other plants or even prevent their growth. These allelopathic plants leave behind chemicals that harm or kill other crops.

Most of the plants mentioned in this article are allelopathic, so pay attention and don’t plant them together. Allelopathic plants can make planning your garden more difficult, but doing your research can prevent crop failures.

Below is a list of 18 flowers, fruits, and vegetables that don’t grow well when planted together.

Asparagus

Asparagus requires some space, so don’t let other plants grow too close. It is particularly susceptible to poor growth when planted next to garlic, onions, and potatoes.

Beans and peas

Beans and peas both have negative effects on certain plants, especially all kinds of sweet and hot peppers. Beets are also affected by all kinds of pole beans.

Beets

Beets won’t grow well near mustard plants or members of the bean or pea family.

Broccoli and cauliflower

Both broccoli and cauliflower won’t grow well near peppers, strawberries, tomatoes, and squash of all types.

Brussels sprouts

This cruciferous vegetable don’t grow well next to strawberries or tomatoes.

Cabbage and cauliflower

Planting cabbage and cauliflower together makes them susceptible to Plasmodiophora brassicae (club root). Club root makes the plant’s roots swell and unable to take up water, which then kills the plant.

Radish and tomato also don’t grow well near cabbage and cauliflower.

Carrots

Carrots won’t grow well if you plant them near dill. Additionally, carrots don’t like to share space with parsnips.

Celery

Celery can be a bit difficult to grow under normal circumstances. To ensure optimal growth, keep celery away from parsnips or potatoes.

Corn and tomatoes

Separate corn and tomatoes because both are vulnerable to a common fungal infection. If tomatoes are infected, they will infect the corn if both plants were planted too close together.

Corn and tomatoes are susceptible to cotton bollworm (also called corn earworm and tomato fruit worm).

Cucumbers

Novice gardeners find it easy to grow cucumbers, but note that these vegetables don’t like being planted near cauliflower, potatoes, or tomatoes, or any strong aromatic herbs like basil, cilantro, lavender, rosemary, and thyme.

Kohlrabi

Kohlrabi, a cruciferous vegetable in the cabbage family, doesn’t grow well when planted near pole beans, strawberries, or tomatoes.

Lettuce

It’s easy to cultivate lettuce, as long as you plant them away from beans, beets, and parsley.

Marigolds

Marigolds are often included in vegetable gardens because they keep away many pests. However, these brightly colored flowers can stunt the growth of peas and pole beans.

Melons

Melons are susceptible to fungi caught from squashes. They should also be kept away from cucumbers and potatoes.

Onions and the allium family

Alliums like onions, garlic, leeks, and shallots will stunt the growth of beans and peas.

Potatoes

Potatoes aren’t compatible with a lot of other plants. To remedy this, grow potatoes in a far corner of your garden.

Even though potatoes and tomatoes belong to the same family, they don’t grow well when planted together. Potatoes slow the growth of tomatoes and the former becomes more susceptible to Phytophthora (potato blight) when the plants are together.

When rotating crops, don’t plant potatoes or tomatoes where the other grew the previous year. Plant potatoes away from cucumbers, melons, squash, sunflowers, tomatoes, and turnips.

Potatoes will grow well when planted near coriander, nasturtium, or sage.

Sunflowers

Sunflowers emit a chemical from their roots that prevents nearby plants from growing. This chemical will affect an area of about 12 inches around the plants, so keep other crops away.

Take note that sunflower seed shells also contain toxic chemicals that will kill grass and other plants. Always harvest the seed heads before the seeds start to fall. Since sunflowers grow tall, they may shade out other sun-loving plants.

Tomatoes

Tomatoes won’t grow well when planted near cilantro and cucumbers.

If you want to start a home garden, decide what kinds of plants you want to grow and plan where you will plant each flower, fruit, herb, and vegetable to maximize crop yield.